Stack #2644808

January 17, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories prototype
step-by-step procedures that guarantee a solution. algorithms
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier heuristics
Sometimes we puzzle over a problem and the pieces suddenly fall together in a flash insight
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence combination bias
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. mental set
our fast, automatic, unreasoned feelings and thoughts intuition
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common. availability heuristic
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. overconfidence
our tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. belief perseverance
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. framing
narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution. convergent thinking
expanding the number of possible problem solutions; creative thinking that diverges in different directions. divergent thinking
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning language
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. babbling stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words. one-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word sentences. two-word stage
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs. telegraphic speech
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding). aphasia
controls language expression—an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech. Broca's area
controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. Wernicke’s area
mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. intelligence
underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. general intelligence
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. savant syndrome
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. intelligence test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance aptitude test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned achievement test
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting reliability:
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. validity
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the demands of life. intellectual disablility
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. motivation
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. instinct
he idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. drive-reduction theory
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active hierarchy of needs
excessive self-love and self-absorption narcissism
deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups. ostracism
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard achievement motivation
in psychology, passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals. grit
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. glucose
the point at which your "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the lost weight. set point
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure. basal metabolic rate
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience. emotion
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing stimulus James-Lange theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion. Cannon-Bard theory
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. two-factor theory
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes) accompanying emotion. polygraph
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging stress
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases—alarm, resistance, exhaustion. general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend) tend and befriend
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine. health psychology
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people Type B
attempting to alleviate stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor. problem-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction. emotion-focused coping
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or person learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events learned helplessness
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. external locus of control
the perception that we control our own fate. internal locus of control
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety. aerobic exercise
a reflective practice in which people attend to current experiences in a nonjudgmental and accepting manner. mindfulness meditation
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood feel-good, do-good phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. adaptation-level phenomenon