sociology 1

January 20, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
what is sociological perspective perspective on human behavior and its connection to society as a whole. Connections between the behavior of the individual people and structures of society in which they live
Comte founder of positivism, coined term sociology, emphasis on systematic observation and social order
Marx society was divided between 2 classes that clashed in pursuit of their own interests – power over those who do not have power
DuBois Black sociologist, draw on specific principles to study social problems
double consciousness the division of ones individual identity into 2 or more social issues
positivism way to study sociology that relies strictly on scientific 1. scientific evidence such as experiments and statistics – scientific method
Durkheim & suicide study 1. carried out first large scale empirical study on suicide – suicide rates within countries compared – religion, marital status, social integration – anomie: don’t feel like you are a part of society
Basic sociology just the knowledge
applied sociology applying what you know to help fix societies problems
functionalist perspective examine social issue and sees the world as interrelated parts that work together and examines each part as separate things to see how they work together
conflict perspective groups competing for scarce resources – power struggle
interactionalist perspective assess how we define things matter based on an individual scale
globalization 1. world wide integration of gov. policies, culture, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas.
research methods survey, secondary analyses, documents, ethnography
ethnography participant observation or extensive interviewing,
validity measurers measuring what they're supposed to
reliability consistency of measures
operationalization give the variables some level of specificity to be able to measure it
culture totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior Includes: ideas, values, artifacts, of groups of people, slang words,
subculture segement of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions, that differs from the pattern of the larger society
culture shock feeling disoriented, uncertain, out pf place, fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture
ethnocentrism the tendency to assumes one’s own culture and way of life is superior to all others
cultural relativism viewing peoples’ behavior from the perspective of their own culture, aknowledgs that different social contexts give rise to different norms and values
mores norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of people ex: sexual assault / murder
folkways – norms governing everyday behavior ex: cutting in line, walking up a down escalator
taboos norm that is based on religious beliefs or morals ex: adultery, homosexuality, abortion
cultural lag the period of maladjustment whne the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
cultural diffusion the process by which a cultural item spreads form group to group or society to society
sanctions penalties and rewards for conducting concerning a social norm
norms established standards of behavior maintained by a society
nature vs nurture heredity vs environment
socialization how eople learn the attiudes, values, and bahviors, appropriate for members of a particular culture
agents of socializations family, school, peer group, mass media nad technology, workplace, religion and state
anticipatory socialization process in which a person reherses for future positions, occupations, and social relationships ex: high school students looking at colleges to attend
resocialization process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life.
cooley and looking glass self we learn who we are by interacting with others – our view of ourselves comes form our impressions of how others perceive us. Sense of self is a product of our social interactions
taking the role of the other (mead) put outselves in someone elses shoes and imagine how people see us
generalized other attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes inot account in his or her behavior
dramaturgy (goffman) people resemble preformers in action – assessing human behavior in social world as in a play / theatre
impression management effort to manage how people see you different shows for different people
face saving / face work glitch in someone preforming their role, saving the glitch and fixing the mistake