Psych-Exam 1

January 27, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
psychology the science of behavior and mental process
neuroscience psych how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
evolutionary psych how natural selection of traits passes down from one generation to the next had promotes survival of genes
behavior genetics how our genes and out environment influence our individual diff
psycho-dynamic how behavior springs from the unconscious
behavioral psych how we learn observable responses
cognitive psych how we encode, process, store and retrieve information
social-cultural how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
case study examines one individual group in great depth in hopes of revealing universal principals..results may mislead us if the individual is atypical..does not explain behavior describes it
naturalistic observation records behavior in a natural environment..does not explain behavior describes it
survey asks people to report their opinion.. the word order of the question will affect peoples response..
random sampling a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of being chosen
correlational research how well one thing predicts the other.. helps us predict.. indicates possible cause and effect but can't prove it
experiment researchers can focus on certain factors by manipulating factor of interest ad controlling other factors..vary 1 or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
positive correlation direct relationship between the 2 things. both increase or decrease together
negative correlation indicates inverse relationship.. as one goes down the other goes up or vice versa
what can't correlation provide evidence of cause and effect relationships because you can't tell which is causing the other… no control
hypothesis educated guess
how does an experiment isolate cause an effect can hold one variable constant while manipulating the other to see if the independent variable causes a change
independent variable te factor manipulated.. variables effects ar ebbing studied
dependent variable in an experiment the factor that is measured, the variable that may change when the independent variable is measured
what is the difference between the experimental group, control group, and placebo groups the experimental group is the one that gets the treatment… control does not get treatment serves as a comparison with the experimental group for judging treatment effects. placebo-recieves an inactive substance or condition
how can double blind procedure and random assignment build confidence in research findings in a double blind procedure neither those in the study or the researchers know who gets the treatment and in random assignment the participant doesn't know whether they are getting the treatment or not.. this controls for placebo affect..
nature vs nurture issue how we judge the contributions of nature (biology) and nurture (experience).influence of genes and experience in the development aod psychological traits and behaviors. todays psychological science see traits and behaviors interaction between nature/nurt
neuron nerve cell : basic building block of the nervous system
dendrite fibers receive messages and conduct them towards the cell body
axon fibers send out messages to other neurons/muscles/glands
action potential nerve impulses. that travel at different speeds.. messages travel faster when carried by axons that have a layer of fatty tissue.. myelin sheath
how does an action potential fire when the excitatory signals>inhibitory signals
what is an all-or-none response neurons either fire or they don't
nervous systems two major divisions CNS-the brain and spinal cord and PNS(peripheral)-the sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glans, and sense organs
sensory neurons carry messages from your bodes tissues and sensory receptors inward to your spinal chord and brain for processing
Motor neurons carry instructions from CNS out to bodys muscles and glands
interneurons within brain spinal cord communicate with one another and process information between the sensory input and motor output
two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system and function autonomic-conrolls glands, muscles of internal organs.. its sympathetic division arouses and parasympathetic calms and somatic.. controls the bodys skeletal muscles.. known as skeletal nervous system
endocrine system and how does it communicate with the nervous system glands in this system secrete hormones (chem messenger) which travel through the blood stream and influence emotions and behaviors..slow communication.. ANS may trigger release of adrenal glands to release hormones
hypothalamas maintenance activites such as hunger, thirst, body temp, helps govern exocrine system via pituitary gland and is link to emotion and reward
amygdala linked to emotion.. fear and agression
cerebellum coordinates voluntary movement and balance and supports memories and such.. processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
cebral cortex thin layer of inter connected neurons covering the cerebral hemispheres; the bodys ultimate control and information processing center
association areas cerebral cortex areas involved primarily in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
motor areas controls voluntary movements
sensory areas revieves info from our senses-somatosensory cortex
frontal lobes involved in speaking and muscle movement.. making plans and judgements
parietal lobes receives sensory input for touch and body position
occipital loves receives info from the visual fields
temporal lobes receive info from ears
Why is R.E.M. Sleep called paradoxical sleep? Muscles are relaxed/paralyzed except minor twitches.. other body systems active
3 issues in developmental psych Nature/nurture, continuity stages, stability/changes
Zygote Conception to 2 weeks.. fertilized egg.. rapid cell division.. developed into an embryo
Embryo 2 through 8 weeks (2mos)
Fetus 9 weeks after conception until birth
What is a teratogen Agents such as viruses and drugs that damage embryo or fetus.. alcohol ex
Piagets order if stages Sensorimotor-birth-2yrs.. knows world in terms of sensory impressions/motor activities.preoperational-2-7..learns language but cannot perform concrete logic. Concert op- 6-11.. conservation math transformations. Formal- abstract reason moral reasoning
Assimilation Interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
Accommodation Adapting our current understandings to incorporate new info
Conservation Properties such as mass,volume, and number remain the same despite changes in shapes
Object performance The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Insecure attachment Marked by anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships..less likely explore even with Mom present.. cling to Mom.. cry kind and remain upset. Avoidantyl attached may not notice..insensitive unresponsive
Secure attachment Play comfortably in moms presence. Leaves becomes upset. When return want contact.. sensitive responsive mothers
Adolescence Tradition between child and adult
Authoritarian parents Set rules/expect obedience.. less social skills, self esteem
Permissive Give in to children's desires.. aggressive and immature
Authorititive parents Demanding responsive willing to compromise l.. high self esteem, self reliance, and social competence
Major physics changes in adolescence Sexual maturity, surge or hormones, bodily changes (breasts/pubic hair), frontal lobe development limbic system lags behind.. leads to impulsiveness and risky behaviors
Stages of moral development
eriksons stages of psychological development (infancy-elementary) infancy-trustvmistrust if needs are met babies trust. toddlerhood-autonomyvshame/doubt-will do do thing self or doubt. preschool-intitivitvevguilt-learn tasks/carry out plans or guilt.elementary-competence v inferiority pleasure of applying self to tasks
eriksons stage of psych development (adolesense-adult)
physical changes in middle adulthood physical vigor increases with exercise, menopause,
late adulthood vision changes, sensitivity to light, net loss of brain cells,
fluid vs crysalline intelligent fluid-ability to reason quickly to know something.. crystalline-accumulation of knowledge, perfected skils
belongingness 1. wanting to belonging: :colors thinking & emotions..2. social acceptance:belonging = higher self esteem.. social segregation =lower. 3. maintaing relationships:resist to break social bonds 4, ostracism 5. fortifying health.. close bonds =happier/healthy
sim & diff between men & women men 4x more likely commit suicide, autism spectrum in childhood, antisocial personality disorder… women puberty sooner, live longer, 70% more fat, 20% less muscle, 5 in short, higher risk of depressions, woman interdependent, intradependent,
sex biological status defined by chromosomes & anatomy.. physical component
gender cultrual expectations about what it means to be male or female
gender roles culturally defined norms, social positions, behavior expectations,
agression any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally
relational aggression act of aggression intended to harm a persons relationship or social standing
which sex commits aggression more men more extreme violence, women relational aggression
who is more likely to lead a group more likely men
salaries (men v w omen) higher salaries paid to men in traditional
elections (men v w omen) women less successful than men
governing bodies (men v w omen) 80% of seats held by men
leadership style:men v w omen) women-democratic, men-directive
interaction style (men v w omen) men-more opinions.. women-more support
is sex a need no
when are women more likely to have sex close to obviation
when do men show increased testosterone levels when socializing with women
can seuxal arousal be learned yes.. likely to produce arousal again via conditioning
what affects does pornography have advrse affect on views about ones own partner
sexual orientation persons preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex other sex or wither sex
sexual identity something that incorporates ones sexual desires, personal values, world views, and religious beliefs,
sexual attraction (chosen or not) not, but behavior is chosen
sexual orientation (chosen or not) becomes pervasive, not choosen
sexual identity chosen , identity is more than sexuality
what things area rumored to affect sexual orientation but actually don't not linkes to parent-child relationships, not hatred of opposite sex (child abuse), not related to hormonal levels, does not appear to willfully chosen
similarities between gay men and female brains same symmetry of hemispheres,amygdala connections the same.
similarities between lesbians & straight males similar to regard with motor areas, larger right brain than left,
biopsychosocial we can view human behavior from 3 levels-biological, psychological, and social cultural. we are biologically rooted in human nature, yet. cultural and psychological influences fine tune assumptions, values and behaviors
dual processing perception thinking memory and attitudes operate on 2 levels.. conscious and unconscious
hindsight bias the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that it could have been predicted
schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
social clock a cultures definition of the right time to leave home get a job, get married.
maturation the biological growth process leading to orderly changes in behavior, mostly independent of experience