psych ch8

February 1, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
thinking refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
concepts mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
how do we form concepts? mental image (prototype)
2 ways to solve problems Algorithms and heuristics
algorithms methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.. exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution.. take a long time
heutisitic simple thinking strategies that often allow us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently. speedier but more error-prime than algorithms.. easy to use simple principle to arrive at solutions to problems
insight involves sudden novel realization of a problem.. humans and animals have insight
intuition an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasioning
obstacles in problem solving confirmation bias, fixation,
confirmation bias tendency to search for info that confirms a personal bias
fixation inability to see a prob from a fresh perspective. impediment to problem solving
types of fixation mental set and functional fixedness
mental set tendency to approach a problem in a particular way especially a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixesness a tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
representative heuristic judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match a particular prototype
availability heuristic whatever increases the ease of retrieving info increases its perceived avilibility
how is retrieval facilitated? 1. how recently we have heard about the event? 2. how direct it is? 3. how correct it is?
overconfidence intuitive heuristics, confirmation of beliefs, and knack of explaining failures increases our over confidence.. tendency to overestimate the accuracy of ones beliefs and judgements
exaggerated fear how things may happen.. feats may be ill founded.. 9/11
framing decisions how an issue if framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
belief bias the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusion
belief perseverance our tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence is called belief perseverance
intelligence the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situation
is intelligence a thing no
reification viewing an abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing
two controversies about intelligence 1. is intelligence a single overall ability or several specific abilities
2. with modern neuroscience techniques can we lacate and measure intelligence within the brain
general intelligence charles spearman- liked to many clusters that can be analyzed by fact analysis
gardner consists of multiple abilities that come in diff packages, 8 relatively independent intelligences exist including the verbal and mathematical aptitudes assessed by std tests… found in people with savant syndrome
strenberg 1. analytical intelligence: assessed by intelligence tests 2. creative: intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situation, generating novel ideas 3. practical: intelligence required for everyday tasks
emotional intelligence ability to perceive, understand and use emotions. the test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its 4 components
4 components of emotional intelligence perceive: recognize emotions in faces, music and stories. understand: predict emotions, how they change and blend. Manage: express emotions in diff situations use: utilize emotions to adapt to be creative
does garner agree with emotional intelligence no questions whether we stretch this idea of intelligence too far when we apply it to emotions
crystallize intelligence accumulated knowledge, as reflected in vocabulary and word-power tests
fluid intelligence ability to reason speedily and abstractly, as when solving unfamiliar logic problems.. decreases with age: declines gradually until age75 then more rapidly after age 85
creativity the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. it correlates somewhat with intelligenc
expertise a well developed knowledge base
imaginative thinking the ability to see things in novel ways
adventuresome personality seeks new experiences rather than following the pack
intrinsic motivation motivated to be creative from within
things required to be creative expertise, imaginative thinking, adventuresome personality, intrinsic motivation, a creative environment
binet started modern intelligence testing.. developed questions that would predict children's future progress in the paris school system
what did binet say about development same course of development by diff rate
chronological age corresponds to a given level of performance
how to calculate intelligence quotient (IQ) IQ=(mental age/chronoligical age) x100
aptitude tests intended to predict ability to learn a new skill
achievement tests intended to reflect what you have already learned
what does WAIS measure overall intelligence, in addition 11 other aspects related to intelligence designed to assess clinical and educational problems
for a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill three criteria 1, standardization 2. reliability 3. validity
standardization
flynn effect tests scores have risen steadily by 27 pts
when is a test considered reliable when it yields constant results
how to determine reliability 1. split-half reliability 2. reliability using dif tests 3. test-retest reliability
split-half reliability dividing the test into 2 equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are
reliability using dif tests using dif forms of the test to measure consistency between them
test-retest reliability using the same test on 2 dif occasions to measure consistency
content validity refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or train
predictive validity refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait
when do intelligence scores become stable 7
MR IQ 70
high intelligence IQ 135
what does the WAIS test for 15 subsets broken down into verbal and performance areas such as .. similarities, vocab, and block design