psych ch 9

January 28, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
motivation need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal
motive a reason or purpose for behavior
4 perspectives to explain motivation include 1. instinct theory 2. drive-reduction theory 3. arousal theory 4. hierarchy of motives
instincts complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout species and are unlearned
drive reduction theory psychological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
what is the physiological aim of drive reduction homeostasis
homeostasis maintenance of steady internal state
incentives environmental stimuli that attract or repel, depending on individual learning histories.. behavior motivated by the pull of external goals such as rewards
arousal theory humans are motivated to engage in behavior that either increase or decrease arousal levels, high arousal levels motivate engagement in behaviors that will lower these levels, low arousal levels motivate activities that can increase arousal-often thru curi
when do people perform best when moderately motivated
what hinders performance over-arousal
opponent-process theory initial, automatic stimulus response is followed by an opposite reaction (opponent process).. multiple exposures. initial response weakens and opponent processes becomes stronger
mazlows hierarchy of needs physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs
self-actualization being dedicated to a mission in life that transcends your selfish interest, loving others when u do like their behavior, accept own weakness, being unafraid of failure
achievement motivation the desire for significant accomplishment, drive to excel, succeed, or outperform others, desire for control and for rapidly attaining a high standard
intrinsic motivation leads to behaviors engaged in for no apparent reward except the pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself
extrinsic motivation supplied by reward that come from the external encironment
application of intrinsic motivaiton enhanced when people are given choices, can promote enduring interest in an activity like love of sport, reward that inform people that they are doing well can boost a sense of competency and intrinsic motivation
benefits of belonging social bonds and cooperation have survival value, group membership is worldwide, all people experience anxiety lowliness jealouy or guilt when something threatens or dissolves social ties.. when relatedness, autonomy, and competence satisfied- well being
job necessary way to make money
career opportunity to advance form one position to another
calling fulling a socially useful activity
flow a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of ones skills
when is flow experiences no work and a lot of work.. marks immersion into ones work.. less driven by extrinsic rewards and more by intrinsic
personnel psych principles of selecting, evaluating, and developing workers
organizational psych studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity
harnessing strengths identifying peoples strengths and matching them to work.. work place effectiveness
what types of interviews are the most informative standardized
interviewer illusion tendency of interviewers to overrate their discernment
why do interviews have illusion disclose interviews good intentions than habitual behaviors, tend to follow successful careers of those they hired rather than those they did no, presume people are what they appear, preconceptions and moods influence peception
how to structure an interview 1. analyze the job 2. script questions 3. train interviewer
what does appraising performance result in 1. employee retention 2. reinforcement of employee for better performance
employee engagement extent of involvement satisfaction, and enthusiasm.
if an employee is engaged 1. knows what is expected of him 2. feels the need to work 3. feels fulfilled at work 4. get opportunities to do the best 5. thinks himself to be a part of something significant 6. has opportunities to learn and develop
how to manage well 1. harnessing job related strengths 2. setting specific, challenging goals 3. choosing an appropriate leadership style
effective goals are personally meaningful, are specific and concrete, supported by managers, encouraged, and achievement is rewarded
more productive if: encouraged to participate in decisions about how work should be done, given problems to solve w/o being told how to solve, taught more than one skill, given significant individual responsibility, given extrinsic and intrinsic rewards
theory x assume that workers are likely to make errors and are motivated by extrinsic rewards.. give simple tasks, direct supervision
theory y assume that people are intrinsically motivated.. allow for more control
task leadership involves, setting standards, organizing work, and focusing on goals
social leadership involves mediating conflicts and building high achieving teams
james-lange theory arousal comes before emotion.. when we know our heart is racing then experience fear
cannon-bard arousal and emotion happen at the same time
schacter-singer two factory theory- arousal and label = emotion.. arousal fuels response but emotion interprets it.. diff cognitive labels- 2 people jumping out of a plane
Zajonc, Ledoux, and Lazarus emotion and two tract brain.. instant before label.. emotion by pass cortex.. lazarus says label kicks in and requires cognitive process
factor analysis a statistical tool that searches for clusters of related items
g factor common skill set
general intelligence a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
health psychology concerned with investigating the psychological, biological, and behavior factors that promote or impair our health