Psych Ch 6

February 17, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
when does a behavior turn into a habit? around day 66
learning the process of acquiring, through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
associative learning learning that certain events occur together. The events may be 2 stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and consequence (as in operant conditioning)
what is classical conditioning when we learn to associate 2 stimuli and this to anticipate events.. must have an involuntary response
stimulus any event to situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning acquire mental info that guides our behavior.. the acquisition of of mental info whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language
who did an experiment that involved classical conditioning ivan pavlov
Pavlov's experiment food in a dogs mouth = salvation.. salvation @ sight of food.. sight of person delivering food.
NS neutral stimulus- a stimulus that evokes no response before conditioning
UR unconditioned response-an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salvation) to an unconditioned stimulus (such as food in mouth)
US a stimulus that unconditionally -naturally and automatically -triggers a response
CS conditioned reponse a learned reponse to a previously neutral (but now conditioned stimulus)
acquisition
how much time should pass between a NS and a US to produce a response 1/2 second
can an NS after a US provide a conditioned response not likely.. a deer hearing a sound after seeing a predator doesn't do any good
how does conditioning help animals survive by responding to cue to help them gain food, avoid dangers, locate mates, and produce offspring
extinction a drop off response when a cs no longer signals an upcoming us
spontaneous recovery the reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization the tendency after conditioning to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus
discrimination the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli
what is important about pavlov's experiments many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other creatures.. how animals adapt to environment.. learning can be studied objectively
what did john watson believe human emotions and behaviors though biologically influenced are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses
respondant behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer for diminished if followed by a punisher.. must have a voluntary reponse
modern behaviorisms most influential and controversial figure B.F. skinner
law of effect rewarded behavior is likely to be repeated
operant chamber a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate in order to get food/water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pecking
reinforcement any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
shaping procedure in which reinforcers guide actions closer and closer toward a desired behavior
positive reinforcement give something that is desired.. ex. pet a dog when you call it
negative reinforcement end something that is desired..take painkillers to end pain.. fasten seatbelt to end loud beeping noise
primary reinforcer an event that innately reinforcing often by satisfying a biological need.. unlearned
conditioned reinforcer an event that gain gains its reinforcing power through its link with a primary re
continuous reinforcement reinforcing a desired response every time it occurs
reinforcement schedule a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
partial (intermittent) reinforement reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces response only after a specified namer of responses
variable-ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed interval schedule a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time
variable interval schedule a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
what is the difference between punishment and reinforcement R increases a behavior..punishment does the opposite
punishment any consequence that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows
positive punishment give something that is undesired.. spray water on barking dog
negative punishment end something thats desired..take away teen driving privileges
four major drawbacks of physical punishment punished behavior suppressed not forgotten.. may negatively reinforce behavior, teaches discrimination among situations, teach fear, physical punishment may increase aggression
what did BF skinner believe shaped behavior external influences (not internal thoughts, feelings)
what did BF skinner say would produce desirable behavior rewards
both classical and operant conditioning are what type of learning associative
charles darwin proposed that what favors traits that that aid in survival natural selection
biological constraints evolved biological tendencies that predispose animal behavior and learning. thus, certain behaviors are more easily learned by some animals than others.
behaviorism the view that psychology 1. should be an objective science that 2. studies behavior w/o reference to mental processes.
biological predispositions biological tendencies limit the types of stimuli and responses that can easily be associated. involuntary automatic
cognitive process thoughts, perceptions, and expectations can weaken the association between the CS and US
latent learning learning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
cognitive map a mental image of the layout of ones environment
intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake
extrinsic motivation motivated to gain reward or avoid punishment
observational learning learning by others
modeling the process of learning and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons neuron that fires when we perform certain actions and when we observe others performing those actions; neural basis for imitation and observational learning
prosocial behavior positive constructive helpful behavior.
in the class example with water bottle and words what was the UR, US, CS, CR UR- flinch
US- squirt
NS-can
CR-squint to can
vicarious reinforcement or punishment learning to anticipate a behaviors consequences in situations like those being observed
antisocial effects observational learning can have adverse effects.. early childhood environments w. high levels of aggression, tv, and videos are powerful sources of observational learnifn
mother comments to susie doesn't the living room look nice now that ive cleaned it? the next day her mother finds susie vacuuming the living room with her toy vaccumm (classical, operant, or observational) observational
just as you are about to go up to the teacher, another student approaches with the same request. the teacher is angry and rudely denies the request. you decide not to ask for an extension (classical, operant, observational) observational
when barbra was 8 she was bitten by a can. since that time barbra experiences anxiety whenever she is near a cat classical
allison needs to learn to speak up louder during class.. when she does she gets a sticker on her chart.. when she gets 25 stickers she gets ice cream.. allison starts speaking up in class more.. classical, operant, observational operant
tom is hammering nails into planks to build a fence. he holds the nail a different way and smashes his thumb. he never holds the nail that way again
sarah and keremy are in love.. the hit song that summer is buckets of love.. after summer when they both go to college sarah hears the tune and her heart flutters. classical, operant, observational classical
the smoke detector in jesses house is low on batteries. it annoyingly beeps every few seconds. jesse installs new batteries so it stops beeping (neg rein, pos rein, punishment, extinction) negative reinforcement
dr. smith is having difficulty getting students to turn in papers. no credit for hw he assumed students would do it for practice. now everyone that turns in a paper gets full credit. students now turn in papers more often positive reinforcement
robert puts .55 into the coke machine to buy his daily coke. today nothing comes out and he does not get his $ back. robert does not put any more money into the machine (pos rein, neg rein, punish, ext) extinction
jeff is playing with his food at the dinner table. his mom tells him to stop when he doesn't she takes his food away leaving him hungry all night punishment
jeff is playing with his food she yells at him to stop. he plays with his food still (pos rein, neg rein, punish, extinguish) neg reinforcement
jeff is diligently working on an art project at school. his teacher notices how hard he is working on the project and praises him. jeff stops working on the project punishment
jamie cannot get an M&m until 10 sec has passed no matter how many Ls she said in the interim fixed interval
jamie gets an m&m every time she says an L correctly continuous reinforcement
jamie cannot get an m&m until a certain amount of time has passed, no matter how many Ls she says in the interim. sometimes 7 seconds must pass, sometimes 13, on average 10. variable interval
jamie gets an m&m every 10 times she says L correctly fixed ratio
sometimes jamie gets an m&m after she says L 3 times, sometimes after she say 7 times variable ratio
social learning the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
secondary reinforcer conditioned reinforcer