OTA Skills Test 2 This same one is also available at Quizlet

February 1, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
How to prevent cross contamination? Barriers & frequent hand washing
Standard precautions include what four key things? Barriers, hand care, sharps and misc.
What does CDC stand for? Center of Disease Control
What is nosocomial infection? an infection that pertains to or originates from a HOSPITAL SETTING.
How long should you wash your hands? 15 – 30 seconds
When to take vital signs? before, during, and after exercise or physical activity
What affects vital signs? 5 things Activity, Age, Physiological status (illness, disease, trauma, meds), Environmental Temperature and Emotional Status (A.A. P.E.E – "Alcoholics Anonymous Pee Test")
Factors affecting temperature? 9 of them Infection, Menstrual Cycle, Environmental Temp, Emotional Status, Time of Day, Site of Measurement, Oral Cavity Temp, Age, Physical Activity -> "I MEET SOAP" Acronym
Factors affecting blood pressure? 7 of them Medications, Emotional Status, Cardiopulmonary disease, Physical Conditioning, Physical Activity, Age, Infection, Gender, Environmental Temp -> A girl with varying blood pressure because she has Cerebral Palsy. "ME: CP PAIGE"
Normal ranges for pulse (adult only) 60 – 100 BPM
Normal ranges for temp? 98.8 – 99.3
Average temp? 98.6
Normal ranges for blood pressure? 120/80 (systolic over diastolic)
Most common place to take pulse? radial & carotid arteries (wrist & neck)
Most common place to take temp? Oral cavity
Most common place to take blood pressure? Brachial artery (upper arm)
What range is considered hypertensive (abnormally high blood pressure)? 140/90 – severe: 180/110
Name some causes of hypertension? Obesity, lack of activity, diabetes, arterial sclerosis, BC (what does this stand for?), kidney disease, substance abuse and diet
Abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) would be systolic below what number? 100
A phenomenon which occurs when holding your breath and trapping air in the thorax? Valsalva Phenomenon
Can Valsalva Phenomenon be life threatening? Yes
The following are principles of what? Plan the activity, position yourself, maintain VGL, position your COG, use major muscle group, use other means if possible (roll, push, pull, slide), avoid simultaneous trunk flexion & rotation, don't lift after prolo Proper Body Mechanics
Benefits of using proper body mechanics? conserve energy, reduce stress & strain, promote safe movements, maintain body control & balance, promote efficient respiratory and cardio pulmonary function
Precautions with lifting, pulling and carrying (according to Mary Beth's handout)? 3 of them 1. Avoid simultaneous trunk flexion and rotation.
2. Stoop or squat rather than flexing
3. Know your personal abilities and limits

Book lists a lot more!

Lifting principles? increase BOS
lower COG
maintain VGL
Direction/position of feet during lifting? Position feet according to the direction of movement, feet farther apart and in anterior/posterior position or in medial/lateral
7 lift techniques? 1. deep squat
2. power lift
3. straight leg
4. half kneeling lift
5. one leg stance
6. traditional lift
7. stoop lift

"DP SHOTS" – depoprevera shots

When do we position patients? before, during, and after treatment when patient is at rest for long time – patient's position must be changed every 2 hours
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Supine
Area: Upper Extremity
Medial Epicondyle of Humerus
(Supine / UE / MEH: "Sue Meh")
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Supine
Area: Lower Extremity
Posterior Calcaneous
(Supine / LOWer / PC: "Slow PC")
Three bony prominences in SUPINE position: Occipital Tuberosity, Medial Epicondyle, Posterior Calcaneous ("OT: ME PC" -> OT's lying in supine position must be politically correct)….supine: head/elbow/ankle
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Prone
Area: Head & Trunk
Forehead
(Prone / Head / Forehead: PHFH)
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Prone
Area: Upper Extremity
Anterior Head of Humerus
(Prone / Upper / Ant Head of Hum: Smelly Aunt Hilda : "P.U. Aunt Hilda")
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Prone
Area: Lower Extremity
Patella (knee)
(Prone / Lower / Patella: PLP)
Three bony prominences in PRONE position: Forehead, AH of Humerus, Patella
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Side-Lying
Area: Head & Trunk
Lateral Ear
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Side-Lying / Lower Most
Area: Upper Extremity
Lateral Head of Humerus
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Side-Lying / Lower Most
Area: Lower Extremity
Lateral condyle of femur
Three bony prominences of SIDE-LYING / Lower Most position…hint: all three begin with "lateral" lateral ear, lateral head of humerus, lateral condyle of femur
No matter what position you are referring to, the common bone of the UPPER EXTREMITIES affected is _____________________. Humerus! Just think about what specific part of the humerus would be affected in each position. (Supine: Medical Epicondyle of Humerus / Prone: Anterior Head of Humerus / Side-Lying & Lowermost: Lateral Head of Humerus / Side-Lying & Uppermost: Medial Epi
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Side – Lying / Upper Most
Area: Head & Trunk
NOTHING!!!!
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Side-Lying / Upper Most
Area: Upper Extremity
Medial Condyle of Humerus
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Side-Lying / Upper Most
Area: Lower Extremity
Medial Condyle of Femur (knee bone)
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Sitting
Area: Head & TRUNK!
ischial tuberosities
(Sitting / Head & Trunk / Ischial Tuberosities: S.H.I.T!)
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Sitting
Area: Upper Extremity
Medial Epicondyle of Humerus
Bony Prominence: _____________________
Position: Sitting
Area: Lower Extremity
NOTHING!
TWO bony prominences in SIDE-LYING/UPPER MOST position: …..hint: both begin with medial Medial Epicondyle of Humerus & Medial Condyle of Femur
TWO bony prominences in SITTING position: Ischial tuberosities and medial epicondyle of humerus
A reddened area is indicative of what? pressure
A blanched area is indicative of what? severe or dangerous pressure
A reddened or blanched area which does not return to normal within ____ ______ after treatment session must be monitored one hour
The following are all rationale for what?

– prevent soft tissue injury and pressure and joint contracture
– provide patient comfort
– provide support and stability of the trunk and extremities
– provide access and exposure to areas to be treated

proper positioning
Unless a patient needs to be restrained for protection or to protect others from harm by the patient, physical or drug restraints are not to be used without the ______________ _________ of the patient and a ____________'s ongoing order. (1) voluntary consent
(2) Doctor / Physician
Wrist or ankle belts/straps, tightly wrapped bed sheet that constrains the patient' upper and lower extremities and trunk, and/or a cloth body garment (i.e. Posey vest, "straight jacket") and at times, bed rails (when are elevated) are all examples of wha physical restraints
The dependent patient's position should be changed at least every _________ hours. two
In general, a patient should be positioned for more than ______ minutes in any position that promotes excessive stress or strait to various structures and promotes the development of soft tissue contractures. 30
Common soft tissue contracture sites related to prolonged positioning in the SUPINE position include (4) 1. hip and knee flexors
2. ankle plantar flexors
3. shoulder extensors, adductors, and internal rotators
4. hip external rotators
Common soft tissue contracture sites related to prolonged position in the PRONE position include (3) 1. ankle plantar flexors
2. shoulder extensors, adductors, and internal/external rotators
3. neck rotators, left or right
Common soft tissue contractor sites related to prolonged position in the SIDE-LYING position include (3) 1. Hip and knee flexors
2. hip adductors and internal rotators
3. shoulder adductors and internal rotators
Common soft tissue contractor sites related to prolonged position in the SITTING position include (3) 1. hip and knee flexors
2. hip adductors and internal rotators
3. shoulder adductors, extensors, and internal rotators
TRUE or FALSE: Linens that have only been used to shield a patient during position change are not considered soiled. FALSE
TRUE OR FALSE: You should avoid linen folds beneath the patient. TRUE
The following are all __________________ with positioning:
– avoid clothing or linen folds beneath the patient
– observe skin color over bony prominences before, during, and after treatment
– protect bony prominences from excessive and prolonged press
precautions
What are the primary reasons to drape? (4) 1. expose or free an area to be treated
2. provide modesty (affected by culture, religious and personal preference)
3. maintain comfortable body temp
4. protect skin & clothing from becoming soiled/damaged
If a patient can do 80% of their own task (i.e., transfer, bathing, etc.), what level of assistance would that patient be considered? "Min Assist"
If a patient can do 30% of their own task (i.e., transfer, bathing, etc.), what level of assistance would that patient be considered? "Max Assist"
If a patient can do 60% of their own task (i.e., transfer, bathing, etc.), what level of assistance would that patient be considered? "Mod Assist"
If a patient can do 40% of their own task (i.e., transfer, bathing, etc.), what level of assistance would that patient be considered? "Max Assist"
If a patient can do 60% of their own task (i.e., transfer, bathing, etc.), what level of assistance would that patient be considered? "Mod Assist"
______ Assist is when a patient performs 75% or more of the task Minimal
______ Assist is when a patient performs 50 – 74% of the task Moderate
______ Assist is when a patient performs 25 – 50% of the task Maximal
_______ Assist: verbal, tactile cues, directions or instructions are given by the therapist. The therapist is CLOSE to the patient but does NOT touch the patient. Standby
What type of assisting would you call it when the caregiver/therapist is close with hands on the patient or safety/gail belt? Contact Guarding
TRUE OR FALSE: If a patient is wearing worn down skid-free socks and does not want to put on shoes for a transfer because she says it is an inconvenience and uncomfortable for her, you should go forward with the transfer as the patient's comfort is most i FALSE.
When transferring from a wheelchair to a bed, the optimal positioning of the wheelchair is ____ to _____ degrees. 45 – 60 degrees
TRUE OR FALSE: A gait belt should be used during a transfer from wheelchair to bed. TRUE
The handgrip of a walker should be level with either the patient's wrist crease or ____________ ______________ (if different levels, go with the customer's comfort). Greater trochanter
Forearm / Lanstrof's Crutches: The top of the crutch should be located approximately 1 – ____ inches distal to the olecranon process when the patient grasps the handpiece with the cuff applied to the forearm and the wrist in neutral flexion-extension. 1.5 inches (1 – 1.5 inches)
According to Mary Beth, how many fingers should you be able to fit between the axilla and the top of the crutch 2
What type of weight bearing status: The leg can carry 100% of the body weight, permits normal walking. Full Weight Bearing (FWB)
What type of weight bearing status: The leg must not touch the floor because it can't support any weight at all (0%). Non Weight Bearing (NWB)
What type of weight bearing status: The leg can support about 50-100% of the body weight depending on the individual and circumstance. Weight Bearing as Tolerated (WBAT)
What type of weight bearing status: A small amount of weight may be supported by the leg and can be gradually increased up to supporting 50% of body weight so that the patient can stand evenly on both feet but can't walk. Partial weight bearing (PWB)
What type of weight bearing status? The foot or toe may touch the floor to maintain balance but cannot support any weight. Touch/Toe-Down Weight Bearing
Name the four types of pathogens 1. bacteria
2. virus
3. fungi
4. protozoa
What does PPE stand for? Personal Protective Equipment
TRUE or FALSE: Disinfectant is a great way to keep human tissue free of pathogens. FALSE. Disinfectant is for non-human surfaces. Antiseptics are used for human tissue.
How is Respiratory Tuberculosis transmitted? Airborne
TRUE or FALSE: Pneumonia is transmitted through the air. FALSE. Pneumonia is transmitted through droplets.
Gloves, gowns, masks, shoe covers and eyeshields are all examples of what? PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
Are you ready for Winter break? YES!!!!!!!!!
Fill in the blanks:
Reservoir -> ______ -> transmission -> ______
1) exit
2) host
Fill in the blanks:
Heel strike -> _________ -> Toe-Off -> ________
1) Midstance
2) Midswing
Fill in the blanks:
Measurement of vital signs can be used to _____________ goals of treatment and _____________ response to treatment or effectiveness.
1) establish
2) assess
At what temperature is a patient considered hyperpyrexic (high fever)? 106 degrees
TRUE or FALSE: It is possible to take a temperature through the inguinal folds. TRUE. Temperature is most commonly measured in the mouth but can also be performed in rectum, axilla, ear, inguinal folds.
TRUE or FALSE: 110 beats per minute is considered within "normal" limits for a resting adult. FALSE. Normal range for resting is 60 to 100 BPM.
PULSE MEASUREMENTS:
good beats, good force
"strong and regular"
PULSE MEASUREMENTS:
even beats with poor force
"weak and regular"
PULSE MEASUREMENTS:
strong and weak beats occur during period of measurement
"irregular"
PULSE MEASUREMENTS:
weak force to each beat and irregular beats
"thready"
PULSE MEASUREMENTS:
rapid heart rate greater than 100 bpm
"tachycardia"
PULSE MEASUREMENTS:
slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm
"bradycardia"
TRUE OR FALSE: to measure a patient's pulse, you would count the beat for 30 seconds and then multiply by 3.5 FALSE. To measure a patient's pulse, you would count the beat for 30 seconds and then multiply by 2.
FILL IN THE BLANK: One respiration comprises of one ________________ and one exhalation. Inhalation
What is the normal range of respiration for adults? 12 – 18 per minute
TRUE or FALSE: An infant with a respiration rate of 50 beats per minute is within normal ranges. TRUE. Normal range for infants is 30 – 50 per minute.
For Lower Extremity (LE) Amputation and Below the Knee Amputation (BKA), sitting time should be limited to which of the following:
(A) 25 minutes each hour
(B) 30 minutes each hour
(C) 35 minutes each hour
(D) 40 minutes each hour
(D) 40 minutes each hour
Prolonged immobilization and failure to change positions frequently are precursors to the development of:
(A) Contractures
(B) Pressure Areas
(C) Decreased Function
(D) A & B only
(E) All of the above
(E) All of the above – Contractures, Pressure Areas and Decreased Function
TRUE or FALSE: If the patient's opinion of their ability to transfer on their own differs from the medical records (i.e., the last therapists notes), you should go with what the patient says as they know their body and abilities best. FALSE. You should interview the patient regarding their abilities but keep in mind that their answer may or may not be reliable.