Nutrition & Diet Test 1

February 11, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
Factors affecting food choices. Biological determinants such as hunger, appetite, and taste. Economic determinants such as cost, income, availability. Physical determinants such as access, education, skills (e.g. cooking) and time.
Six classes of nutrients. carbohydrate, protein, lipid (fat), water, vitamins, and minerals
Energy-yielding nutrients; carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Macronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in large amounts. These provide the body with energy (calories). Micronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in smaller amounts
Micronutrients a chemical element or substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms.
macronutrients examples carbohydrates (sugar), lipids (fats), and proteins
micronutrient example
Energy-yielding nutrients; energy-yielding nutrients because they provide your body with energy that is measured in calories
inorganic The presence or absence of carbon is what differentiates organic nutrients from inorganic nutrient
inorganic examples Water and minerals do not, so they are inorganic
organic examples Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and vitamins have carbon in their structure
organic consist of carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamin
Essential nutrients required for normal physiological function that cannot be synthesized by the body, and thus must be obtained from a dietary source
Essential nutrients examples Vitamin C
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) the amount of an essential nutrient, as a vitamin or mineral, that has been established by the Food and Nutrition
Adequate intakes (AI) A recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people,
Adequate intakes (AI) which are assumed to be adequate-used when a recommended daily amount cannot be determined. See also: dietary reference intake.
Tolerable upper intake levels (UL) The highest level of nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases
calculate foods o 1g carbohydrate yields 4 kcals of energy
o 1g protein yields 4 kcals of energy
o 1g fat (lipid) yields 9 kcals of energy
epidemiological study of disease incidence in the population
experimental study of cause and effect in a laboratory-based animal model, laboratory-based in-vitro experiments & human clinical trials
anthropometric the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human body.
Primary nutrient deficiencies undernutrition is the outcome of insufficient food caused primarily by an inadequate intake of dietary or food energy whether or not any specific nutrient deficiency is present
Secondary nutrient deficiencies undernutrition is due to secondary causes that limit an adequate supply of nutrients to the body
Chronic diseases s one lasting 3 months or more, by the definition of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics
Risk factors is any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury.
6 Principles of diet planning adequacy, balance, calorie control, moderation, variety, and nutrient density
Nutrient Density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties
nutrient density example Eggs, for example, have a high nutrient density, because they provide protein and many vitamins and minerals in proportion their calories.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the cornerstone of Federal nutrition policy and nutrition education activities. … As a result, healthy eating patterns and their food and nutrient characteristics are a focus of the recommendations in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines.
Food groups Vegetables and legumes/beans. Fruit. Grain, Lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans. Milk. oils
enrichment and fortification is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
enrichment and fortification examples milk is often fortified with vitamin D, and calcium may be added to fruit juices
Food labeling Facts label for packaged foods to reflect new scientific information
Anatomy of the digestive tract Digestion works by moving food through the GI tract. Digestion begins in the mouth with chewing and ends in the small intestine.
Anatomy of the digestive tract part 2 As food passes through the GI tract, it mixes with digestive juices, causing large molecules of food to break down into smaller molecules.
bolus a small rounded mass of a substance, especially of chewed food at the moment of swallowing.
chyme the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
peristalsis the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
segmentation are a type of intestinal motility. Unlike peristalsis, which predominates in the esophagus, segmentation contractions occur in the large intestine and small intestine, while predominating in the latter.
Functions of intestinal bacteria Its primary function is to salvage energy from carbohydrate not digested in the upper gut have a role in the synthesis of vitamins B and K and the metabolism of bile acids, other sterols and xenobiotics. The colonic microflora are also responsive to diet
villi digestion Millions of tiny finger-like structures called villi project inwards from the lining of the small intestine. The large surface area they present allows for rapid absorption of digestion products.
microvilli digestion are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
vascular system Nutrients, oxygen and wastes all pass in and out of your blood through the capillary walls
lymphatic system Water-soluble nutrients and small fats are routed to the liver before being transported to the cells.
lymphatic system part 2 Fat-soluble nutrients, which enter the lymph, bypass the liver at first but eventually enter the vascular system. The vascular system is a closed system of vessels consisting of arteries, capillaries and veins.
What systems helps to regulate / control the digestive and absorptive processes – hormones and nervous system nervous and endocrine
what are the organ systems involved in absorption? cardiovascular system and lymphatic system
what are the organ systems involved in left over wastes? urinary system and respiratory system
lactose intolerance The inability to fully digest sugar (lactose) in dairy products.
List the digestive enzymes of the stomach and describe the function of each enzyme – Pepsin(ogen) enzyme – breaks down proteins; pepsinogen becomes pepsin once comes in contact w/ HCl. Pepsin is enzyme that actually breaks down chyme
List the digestive enzymes of the stomach and describe the function of each enzyme – Gastric lipase enzyme – breaks down fats
– Intrinsic factor – facilities absorption of Vitamin-B12 (necessary for cell mitosis)
Condensation chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties, often functional groups, combine to form a larger molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule.
hydrolysis that is catalyzed by enzymes in the digestive tract.
3 common monosaccharides glucose (dextrose)
fructose (levulose)
galactose.
ribose.
xylose.
3 disaccharides maltose, lactose, sucrose
the individual monosaccharides which they are made of
simple carbohydrates found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks
complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain.