January 19, 2018 Off By admin
Term Definition
Onychosis General term for any nail disease or deformity.
Onychomycosis Fungal infection of the nail. Also known as Tinea Unguium.
Tinea Pedis A fungal infection that can occur on the bottom of the feet, as well as, between the toes, which can spread to the toenails. Also known as Athletes Foot.
Onychia Inflammation of the nail matrix.
Onycholysis Loosening or separation, without shedding, of the nail plate from the nail bed.
Paronychia Bacterial inflammation of the skin surrounding the nail plate
Humerous Largest bone in the upper arm,extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
Ulna Inner and larger bone on the outside of the forearm, located on the pinky side.
Radius Outer and smaller bone on the inside of the forearm, lacated on the thumb side
Phalanges The bones of the fingers and toes; also known as digits.
Metacarples Five long, think bones between the wrist and fingers, forming the palm of the hand.
Carpals Eight small bones, arranged in two rows, which form the wrist.
Extensor muscles Aid in the straightening of a joint.
Pronator muscles Turns the forearma nd hand inward so the palm faces downward.
Flexor muscles Bends a joint.
Supinator muscles Turns the forearm and hand outward so the palm faces upward.
Adductor muscles Pull the fingers or toes together.
Abductor musles Spread the fingers and toes
Opponens muscles Group of adductor muscles located in the palm that pulls the thumb towards the fingers.
Median nerve Smallest of the three arm and hand nerves; runs along the mid forearm and extends into the hands.
Radial nerve Nerve that runs alomng the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
Ulnar nerve Nerve that runs along the little finger side of the arm and the palm of the hand.
Digital nerve Nerves located in the fingers and toes.
Reflexology Based on the use of reflex points located throughout the hands, feet, and head that are linked to other parts of the body.
Radial artery Supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
Ulnar artery Supplies blood to the little finger side of the arm and the palm of the hand.
Manicure A cosmetic service for care of the hands,which includes skin and nail care, cosmetic treatments and procedures,polishing techniques and artifical nail applications.
Predicure Cosmetic care of the toenails and feet.
Quaternary ammonium compounds A standard name for disinfectants. Also known as Quats.
Alcohol Extremely flammable,colorless liquid that evaporates quickly.
Sodium hypochlorite Commonly known as bleach.
Phenol Strong,high pH disinfectant.
Accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP) Disinfectant based on a stabilized hydrogen peroxide that is non-toxic to the skin and environment; this type of disinfectant only needs to be changed every 14 days.
Lungs Spongy, respiratory organs responsible for inhaling and exhaling.
Onyx Technical term for nails.
Nail plate Translucent portion of the nail,extending from the nail root to the free edge;sometimes referred to as the nail body.
Free edge Part of the nail plate that extends beyond the fingertip.
Hyponychium Skin between the free edge and fingertip of the natural nail
Nail bed Portion of the skin that the nail plate rests upon as it grows out.
Bed epithelium Thin layer of skin cells between the nail bed and the nail plate.
Cuticle The small portion of non-living epidermis extending around the base of the nail.
Lunula Whitish, half-moon shape at the base of the nail.
Matrix Part of the nail bed that extends below the nail root and helps to produce the nail plate.
Nail folds Folds of normal skin that surround the natural nail plate.
Nail sidewall The peice of skin that overlaps onto the side of the nail; also known as the lateral nail fold.
Nail grooves Slits or grooves on the sides of the nail that allow the growth
Eponychium Living skin at the base of the nail plate that partially overlaps the lunula.
Perionychium Additional or excessive skin that overlaps onto the sides of the nail plate.
Agnail The split cuticle around the nail; also known as hangnail.
Bruised nail Darkish purple discoloration under the nail caused by trauma.
Eggshell nail Noticeably thin, white nail plate that is more flexible than normal.
Leukonychia Whitish discolorish of the nails caused by injury; also known as white spots.
Melanonychia Darking of the nails caused by excess melanin; may be in a band or stripe.
Nail psorasis Non-infectious condition that affect the surface of the natural nail. Nail that will appear pitted andor have roughness on the surface.
Nail pterygium Forward growth or living skin that adheres to the surface of the nail plate.
Onychocryptosis Ingrown nail.
Onychophagy Bitten nails.
Onychorrhexis Abnormal brittleness of the nail plate.
Ridge A vertical or horizontal indentation running the length or width of the nail plate. Also known as Furrow or Corrugation.
Nail Root The portion of the nail plate hidden under a fold of skin (mantle) at the base of the nail plate.
Mantle Pocket-like fold of skin that holds the root and the matrix
Beau's lines Visiable depressions running the width of the natural nail plate.
Femur Long bone extending from hip to the knee, also known as the thigh bone.
Patella Technical term for the kneecap.
Tibia Largest of the two bones below the knee that form the lower leg. Also known as the Shin Bone.
Fibula Bone forming the outer part of the lower leg, extending from the knee to the ankle.
Tarsal Seven bones that form the ankle.
Metatarsal Five long, slender bones located between the ankes and the toes.

Muscle located in the calf that pulls the foot down; attached to the lower portion of the heel.

Tibialis anterior Muscle that covers the shin and bends the foot.
Soleus Muscle that is attached to the lower heel and bends the foot down.
Peroneus longus Longer of the two muscles rotating the foot down and out.
Tibialis posterior Muscle that helps the foot flex inward.
Peroneus brevis Shorter of the two muscles responsible for rotating the foot down and out.
Flexor digiti minimi Muscle that controls the little toe.
Monomer Liquid that mixes with acrylic powder and binds the acrylic polymers to form a nail enhancement.
Methyl methacrylate (MMA) Monomer that is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid compound. Polymerizes readily and is used especially as a monomer for acrylic resin. It has a small molecule size and can penetrate body tissue or skin and possibly cause an allergic reaction
Polymer A convent rate or powder made up of the acrylic powder that when mixed with a monomer forms a nail enhancement.
Initiators Substances that begin the process that starts the chain reaction, leading to very long polymer chains being created.
Inhibition layer The tacky, film-like that forms on the top of the nail enhancement.
Polymerization The chemical reaction, also known as curing or hardening, that creates polymers.
Nail Rasp Metal tool that has a grooved edge. This tool is typically used for pedicures to smooth and file the free edge.
Wooden pusher Used to gently remove cuticle tissue away from the nail plate and clean under the free edge; made from orangewood, rosewood or other hardwoods; disposable alternatives for pushing back cuticles.
Metal pusher Used to gently scrape the cuticle from the natural nail. They are made of stainless steel and can be disinfected and reused.
Micro trauma Causing small unseen openings in the skin that allow for the entry of pathogens.
Overlay Any fabric wrap, UV cured-gel or acrylic/sculptured nail that is applied to enhance and/or strengthen the natural nail.
Curing The chemical reaction that causes hardening. Also known as polymerization.
Pyogenic granuloma Small rounded mass (vascular tissue) protecting from the nail bed to the nail plate.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) A high-quality virgin plastic, used to manufacture nail tips.
Position stop Edge of the wall that bumps up against the free edge of the natural nail.
Stress area Edge of the nail tip below the contact area that is the most vulnerable area accepting everyday wear and tear.
Primer Liquid solution, containing methacrylic acid that is applied sparingly to the natural nail plate prior to acrylic product application to assist in adhesion of the enhancement.
Nail dehydrator Removes moisture or oils from the nail plate prior to nail enhancement services.
Fabric wraps Very thin and tightly woven materials, such as linen, silk or fiberglass that are used to strengthen the natural nail or are applied over nail tips.
Cyanoacrylates Specialized acrylic monomers that quickly polymerize with the addition of alcohol, water or any weak alkaline product to form an adhesive.
Nail Wrap Resin Used to adhere the fabric wrap to the natural nail or nail tip.
Oligomers Short polymer chains that consist of just a few monomers, creating a thickened resin or a "gel-like" substance.
Urethane Acrylate Main ingredient used to create UV gel nail enhancements.
Urethane Methacrylate Main ingredient used to create UV gel nail enhancements.
Photo initiators The chemical that begins the polymerization process in gel nails.
Arch The curvature side view of a nail tip providing support to the stress area and sides of nail tip. Also known as Apex.
Opacity Thick or dark quality that makes product difficult to see through.
Silk wraps Made from a thin natural material with a tight weave that provides smooth, even, clear appearance after a wrap resin is applied.
Tinea Technical term for Ringworm, is a contagious fungal infection, distinguished by itching, scales, and occasionally painful lesions.