EDPY 302 Module 2

January 27, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
Early Childhood Age 2-6. AKA the "play years". Children grow slower than they did in infancy. An explosion of motor skills happen and language improves. Make believe play emerges.
Height and Weight Girls and boys both grow approximately 5-8 centimetres/year and gain approximately 2-3kilograms/year. They become increasingly slender and lose the "baby fat"
Development of the Brain Brain develops quicker than any other organ. By age 2 it's 75% of its adult weight. The increase in size is in part due to the continuing mylenation process of nerve fibres. Completion of neural pathways facilitate the development of fine motor skills.
Right Handed Individuals Left hemisphere = relatively more involved in intellectual undertakings that require logical thinking. Right hemisphere = superior in visual-spatial functions.
Corpus Callosum a thick bundle of nerve fibres that connect the hemispheres. Myelination of this area proceeds rapidly during early and middle childhood and children can better integrate logical and emotional functioning.
Specialized Areas of the Brain Many areas of the brain have specialized functions, these enable our behaviours to be more complex but also means that injuries to these areas can result in the loss of certain functions
Plasticity Means that the brain frequently compensates for injuries to specific areas. This ability is the greatest at 1-2 years old but then gradually declines. Regaining function in adulthood is much more difficult. 2 functions involved are sprouting&redundancy
Sprouting The growth of new dendrites. To some degree, dendrites can allow for the rearrangement of neural circuits.
Redundancy of Neural Connections When similar functions are found at 2 or more sites in the brain, though they may be developed to different degrees. If one of the sites is damaged, the other may be able to perform the function.
Gross Motor Skills involve the large muscles used in locomotion. Children make great strides in these skills between ages 2-5. They acquire these skills by teaching themselves and by observing others. Children spend 25+ hours/week in large muscle activity.
Physically Oriented Play 2-4 year olds are more likely than 4-6 year olds to engage in physically ore
Rough and Tumble Play consists of a variety of energetic behaviours but is not the same as aggressive behaviour. There is a mutual understanding of enjoyment from the play partners.
Benefits of Social Play positive association with social competence. Children are socialized through play about social norms, learning to regulate impulses, how to read other's cues, and fostering social skills.
Fine Motor Skills develop gradually and lag gross motor skills. Involve the small muscles used for manipulation and coordination. Refined with age because of typical neurological development, practice, and experience.
Children Drawings 4 stages that are linked to cognitive and motor skill development.
Placement. Shape. Design. Pictorial
Left Handedness appears to be connected with language problems, health problems, and psychological problems. But they appear to be good at math, athletics, music, and art.
Children and Calories More calories are required as children get older, but since they are growing at a slower rate than infants their need fewer calories/kg of body weight. During 2-3 a child's appetite decreases and becomes erratic.
Minor Illnesses Normal and typically only last a few days. They are not life threatening. Between 1-3 years old they typically have 8-9 minor illnesses a year. this drops between 4-10 years old to only about 4-6/year. They are positive because they create antibodies.
Accidents motor vehicle accidents are the #1 cause of death in early childhood. Occur most often among low-income children possibly because of dangerous living, less likely to take preventative measures, disorganized, and under stress
Children and Sleep Early children need 10-11 hours of sleep in 24 hours. Many take a transitional object with them to bed but are unlikely to do so if they sleep with their parents.
Sleep Terrors More severe than anxiety dreams/nightmares. Usually occur during deep sleep, early in the night. They are often associated with stress. Children will wake up suddenly with a surge in heart and respiratory rates. They may thrash about and talk incoherently
Nightmares Take place during lighter REM sleep, occur in the morning hours when REM sleep is longer. Qualify as normal dreams because of their frequency.
Sleep Walking/Somnambulism
Enuresis failure to control the bladder. Psychoanalytical theory says that it may be a way of expressing hostility to parents. Learning theory points out that it occurs more often in children whose parents tried to train them too early. Situational stresses.
Encopresis lack of control over the bowels. More common in boys. Stems from both physical causes and psychological factors. May follow harsh punishments of toilet accidents.
Piaget's Preoperational Stage Age 2-7
Preoperational Thought The use of symbols to represent objects and the relationships among them. The most important symbolic activity is language. Symbolism is also expressed in scribbles, drawings, and pretend play.
Symbolic Play requires cognitive sophistication. Emerges in the 2nd year when children begin to symbolize objects. The ability to engage in pretend play is based on the use of symbols and mental representations that the child has experienced or heard.
Ages for Pretend Play first emerges at 12-13 months. By 15-20 months they shift focus from themselves to others. By 30 months they believe that the objects can take an active role
Magical/Wishful Thinking Children use this to explain occurrences that do not have a realistic explanation.
Imaginary Friends More common in first born children. Children with an imaginary friend are less aggressive, more cooperative, more creative, show greater ability to concentrate, and are more advanced in language development.
Egocentrism One dimensional thinking. Children do not understand that people may have different perspectives on the world. They view the world as a stage that has been erected to meet their needs and amuse them.
Precausal Preoperational children believe that everything happens for a reason and not by accident. Unless they know the cause of events, their reasons are likely to have an egocentric flavour.
Transductive Reasoning Children reason by going from one event to another. Separate events are thought of as having a cause-and-effect relationship.
Animism Preoperational children attribute life and intentions to inanimate objects.
Artificalism Assumes that environmental features have been made and designed by people.
Law of Conservation properties stay the same even if you change their shape or arrangement. Preoperational children are not conservationists. They can only focus on one aspect of the problem.
Centration Focusing on only one dimension at a time.
Class Inclusion Including new objects or categories into broader mental classes or categories. Preoperational children can't do this because they can't focus on 2 aspects at once.
Cognitive Scaffolding Support provided by the parent or teacher to a learning child. Guidance decreases as a child gains the skill.
Zone of Proximal Development Key forms of a child's cognitive abilities develop through interactions with older and more experienced individuals who teach and guide them in the appropriate learning environment,
Academic Preschool Programs structure learning processes and curricula to take children step-by-step through learning numbers, alphabet, colours, etc. The intention is to give them a running start on achievement.
Child Centred Preschool Programs Teachers provide a variety of activities and children are permitted to choose those that interest them most. The child sets the pace and acquires whatever academic skills may be available through play.
Dynamic Assessment Offers an alternative form of assessment which incorporates the opportunity to test a child's potential by diminishing the focus on culturally learned information.
TV ages 2-11 spend 15.5 hrs/week watching TV. It can provide children with a new window on the outside world and new experiences, it can enrich academic knowledge and enhance attitudes and motivation. It can nurture social skills.
Theory of Mind allows us to explain and predict behaviour by referring to mental processes.
Understanding false beliefs Related to the development of executive functioning, including working memory, ability to pay attention to problems, and self-control.
Appearance-Reality Distinction a clear understanding of the difference between real and imagined events. By age 4 children can make a distinction between real and imagined.
Scripts Abstract, generalized accounts of repeated events. Young children begin forming scripts after experiencing an event only once. Scripts become more elaborate with repeated experience.
Autobiographic/Episodic Memory memory of specific events. Linked with the development of language skills. Facilitated by kids telling parents and others about past events.
Factors Influencing Memory 1. What a child is being asked to remember. 2. Availability of retrieval cues. 3. Interest Levels. 4. Memory measurement being used.
Being asked to Remember Preschooler's memories for activities are better than their memories for objects. They also have an easier time remembering events that follow a logical order.
Interest Level Attention opens the door to memory. Interest level and motivation contribute to memory
Retrieval Cues To retrieve things in our own memories we need cues. Young children depend more on cues from adults to help them retrieve memories. Parents who elaborate and ask questions encourage a child to contribute to remember
Types of Measurement What we find is determined, in part, by how we measure it. Children's memory is often assessed by asking them to tell what happened. Using dolls to re-enact an event may be more accurate.
Strategies to Remember Preschooler's rarely appear to use memory strategies on their own initiative, this doesn't occur until age 5. Very young children touch, point, and look to remember.
Fast Mapping Children quickly attach new words to appropriate concepts. The key is that they are equipped with early cognitive biases that lead them to prefer certain meanings. such as: objects only have 1 label and whole-object assumption.
Overregularization Based on the simple fact that children acquire grammatical rules as they learn language. At young ages they apply these rules strictly. Over regularization reflects accurate knowledge of grammar.
Pragmatics Children show pragmatism when they adjust their speech to fit the social situations.
Cognitive or Language Development Piaget believed that cognitive development precedes language development. Children must first understand concepts before they use words to describe concepts. Children learn words to describe classes/categories they have already created.
Vocalizations and Thought Vygotsky believed that during the first year, vocalizations and thought are separate. But by the second year, thought and speech combine forces. Speech begins to serve intellect and thought begin to be spoken.
Private Speech At first, children's thoughts are spoken aloud. This may help to regulate their behaviour. Language gradually becomes internalized and is the ultimate binding of language and thought.
Parental Patterns 2 broad dimensions: warmth-coldness and permissive-restrictvness
Warm Parents Affectionate towards their children and usually behave in ways that communicate their enjoyment in being with their children. Less likely than cold parents to use physical punishment.
Cold Parents May not enjoy being with their children and have fewer feelings of affection for them. They are more likely to complain about their children's behaviour.
Children of Warm Parents Children of warm parents are more likely to develop internalized standards of conduct, a moral sense. Parental warmth is also related to a child's social and emotional well-being.
Restrictive Positive Parents impose rules and watch their child closely. Can have positive consequences on the child when combined with strong support and affection. This is Authoritative Style
Restrictive Negative Parents if restrictive means physical punishment, inference, or intrusiveness, it can have negative effects: disobedience, rebellious, and lower levels of cognitive development. This is Authoritarian Style
Permissive Parents impose few, if any, rules and watch their child less closely. They allow their child to do whats natural and allow them to show some aggression, intervening only when someone is in danger. This parenting is connected with higher self-esteem and adjustment
How parents enforce boundaries Induction. Power Assertion. Withdrawal of Love.
Induction aim is to impart knowledge that will enable children to produce desirable behaviour in similar situations. Reasoning: explaining why one behaviour is better than another. Helps the child understand moral behaviour and develop prosocial behaviours.
Power Assertion physical punishment and denial of privileges. Related to parental authoritarianism and the child's behaviour. Associated with lower peer acceptance, poor grades, antisocial behaviour, aggression, and delinquency.
Withdrawal of Love isolate or ignore the child. Can be more detrimental than physical harm. May foster compliance but instills guilt and anxiety.
4 types of parenting styles Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive-indulging, permissive-neglecting
Authoritative Parenting High in restrictiveness and warmth. Strong efforts to control their child, but also strong support and love. Children are: self-reliant, high self-esteem, high level of activity and exploratory behaviour, have social competence and motivated to achieve
Authoritarian Parents Obedience, strict guidelines, children must accept without question. Use coercion. Do not communicate with or respect their child. Cold and rejecting. Sons are hostile, daughters have low independence. Less competent, friendly, and spontaneous.
Permissive-Indulgent Parents rated low at attempts to control children and demand mature behaviour. Easy going and unconventional but high nurturing. Children are less competent in school and deviant, but are socially competent and have high self-esteem.
Permissive-Neglecting Parents low attempts to control and low demand for maturity. But also low in warmth and responsiveness. Children are the least responsible, least competent, and least mature and are prone to problem behaviours.
Older vs Younger Siblings Older siblings are more nurturing and dominating. Younger siblings are more likely to imitate older ones and accept their direction.
Sibling Relationship Change Changes in 2 ways as they mature: 1. They grow more competent and become more egalitarian (equal). 2. Their relationship becomes less intense. Power and conflict decline, warmth and closeness diminish
1st Born Children more motivated to achieve, better at standardized tests. More cooperative, helpful, and adult oriented. Less aggressive. Have greater anxiety and less self-reliance. More likely to have imaginary friends.
Later Born Children more aggressive for parent attention. Lower self-concepts but have social skills which translate into being well liked by peers. More rebellious, liberal, and agreeable. Parents are more flexible because they dilute the resources
Peers Important for the development of young children. They learn social skills, how to lead and follow, physical and cognitive skills, and provide emotional support. By 6 months they begin having interactions and at 2 years they play social games and have pref
Play Helps develop motor skills and coordination. Also contributes to social development and supports cognitive qualities such as curiosity/exploration, symbolic thinking, and problem solving. May even help children control impulses.
Piaget's Play Functional: repetitive motor activity.
Symbolic: pretend, imagined, dramatic.
Constructive: draw/make something.
Formal: formal game with rules.
Parten's Play Unoccupied, onlooker, solitary (unsocial, 2-3 year olds).
Parallel, associative, cooperative (social, 5 year olds)
Vygotsky's Play Perspective play creates a zone of proximal development, eases the separation of thoughts from actions, aids the development of self-regulation, impacts motivation, and helps decentration.
Prosocial Behaviour altruism. Behaviour intended to benefit another without expectation or reward. In the first year children begin sharing. In the second year they share, and begin comforting distressed companions as well as helping with tasks
Supporting Prosocial Behaviour Empathetic caregiving, prosocial modelling, and provision of clear rules when negative or coercive behaviour is used. Adults can coach children through appropriate peer interactions and empower children by assigning age appropriate responsibilities.
Empathy Sensitivity to the feelings of others. Promotes prosocial behaviour and decreases aggressive behaviour
Perspective-Taking Can see from someone else's point of view. This is improved with age. Children with perspective-taking ability show more prosocial behaviour and less aggressive behaviour.
Common Features of Aggression Intention to harm and the victim is hurt. Can be productive (unprovoked) or reactive (defensive). May take several forms including physical, verbal, and relational.
Evolutionary Theory of Aggression there is a struggle for survival and individuals who are aggressive have an advantage and are more likely to make it to reproductive maturity. . The genes linked to aggression are then transmitted to new generations.
Biological Factors of Aggression Genetics may be involved, aggression is estimated to be about 60% heritable. Genes related to aggression do so through the male hormone. It is connected with feelings of self-confidence, high activity levels, and aggression.
Cognitive Behaviour of Aggression Children who believe in the legitimation of aggression are more likely to behave aggressively when presented with social provocations. Children who demonstrate hostility have higher rates of aggressive peer interaction.
Social Learning of Aggression Environmental factors such as reinforcement and observational learning. Aggressive children associate with peers who value their aggression and encourage it. Children who are physically punished are more likely to be aggressive.
Media Influences on Aggression TV models have powerful influences such as observational learning, disinhibition, increased arousal, and habituation. Exposure to violence in the media increases the probability of violence in the viewer in several ways.
Increasing the Likelihood of Aggression Aggressive children seek out this entertainment. Parental substance abuse, physical punishment, father absence, and parental rejection all increase the likelihood.
Sense of Self Emerges gradually in infancy. They begin to visually recognize themselves and differentiate themselves from others.
Categorical Self Self-definitions that rely on concrete external traits (girl, boy)
Self-Esteem value/worth people attach to themselves. Children ho have a good opinion of themselves during preschool are more likely to show secure attachment and have attentive behaviours. They are more likely to engage in physical behaviour. Age 4: evaluate starts
Initiative vs Guilt Children in this stage strive to achieve independence from parents. They are curious but realize they can't achieve everything. Fear of violating rules may curtail their efforts. Parents should be encouraging in their learning attempts.
Gender Roles Cultural stereotypes about males and females. Develops through stages. By 2.5 you can label the genders. By 3 you have increasing knowledge of stereotypes and show it. From 3-10 you become increasingly traditional in your choices.
Evolution and Heredity in Gender Differences Gender differences were fashioned by natural selection in repeatedly encounter situations.
Organization of the Brain and Gender Differences Organization of the brain is largely genetically determined and one thing that effects it is prenatal exposure to sex hormones.
Sex hormones and Gender Differences The development of gender differences in personality and anatomical differences are largely related to prenatal sex hormones.
Social Cognitive Theories and Gender Differences Children learn what is masculine and feminine by observing and imitating. Socialization also plays a role.
Cognitive Development and Gender Differences Children play an active role. They form concepts and fit their behaviour into those concepts. Gender identity, gender stability, and gender constancy.
Gender Schema Theory Children use gender as one way of organizing their perceptions of the world.