Chapter 22 Test Scientific Revolution

January 25, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
What was the geocentric theory? The idea that the earth was the center of the universe.
What is the Scientific Revolution? A major change in European thought, in which the study of the natural world started to be characterized by careful observation and questioning of accepted beliefs. (mid 1500's).
How did the Renaissance pave the way for the Scientific Revolution? It challenged what the church was saying, and the church was proving to people what was right, but when people became literate, they began to question the church's authority which turned people towards scientific thinking.
How did the Age of Exploration pave the way for the Scientific Revolution? Navigators needed better instruments and geographic measurements. By looking into this, it made people more curious of the world around them.
What was the heliocentric theory? The idea that the earth and all of the other planets revolve around the sun.
How did Copernicus think the church would react to his idea? He thought the church would reject it, because it contradicted religious views.
What is the scientific method? A logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
How did the ideas of reason and order affect ideas in politics? Philosophers and scholars across Europe began to rethink long held beliefs about human condition. It forever changed the political landscape in numerous societies.
What was so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution? Prior to the Scientific Revolution, people just accepted the ideas that the church had drilled into their minds. During the Scientific Revolution, people began to think for themselves and figure out how things worked.
What did Thomas Hobbes believe was true about humans? He believed that humans were naturally selfish and wicked, and that we need a strong ruler.
Who called for a social contract regarding a government in which people agreed to give full control to a monarch because people acted in their own self interest? Thomas Hobbes.
What were the beliefs of John Locke? He believed that all people could improve themselves and learn from their experiences. He believed that people were given three rights when they were born, life, liberty, and property.
What did John Locke believe the purpose of a government was? What did he think the people should do if the government fails to do so? He believed that the purpose of a government was to protect the three rights, and if a ruler failed to do so, then the people should overthrow it.
Who was Montesquieu and what did he believe? He believed that the best way to protect liberty is a government with three branches – separation of powers – so each branch serves as a check (control) to the other branches.
Who was Voltaire and what did he believe? He was the most influential of the philosophes. He criticized the church and French government. He believed in tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech.
Who was Beccaria and what did he believe? He believed that laws exist to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes. He argued for speedy trials and punishments which fit the crime ; no capital punishment or torture.
Whose theory did Galileo support, and what happened to him as a result of it. He believed in the theory of Copernicus. As a result for publishing his findings, he was put on trial by the Inquisition, and he was forced to say that the ideas of Copernicus were false.
Who was Mary Wollstonecraft, and what did she do? She argued that women's education should not be secondary to men's and that women need education to become more virtuous and useful.
What were three long term effects of the Enlightenment? Belief in progress, a more secular outlook, and importance of individuals.
Who were three enlightened despots? Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Joseph II.
Why were the enlightened despots not considered true reformers? They were not at the forefront of the Revolution.
Who were the philosophes? Social critics in France during the 1700's.
What were the five core beliefs of the philosophes? Reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty.
What was the Enlightenment? A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power for individuals to solve problems.