Ch. 22

January 28, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
What is the geocentric theory? The Earth is the center of the universe and everything else revolves around it.
What was the Scientific Revolution? The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world.
How did Renaissance helped the Scientific Revolution? Lands were inhabited by peoples and animals previously unknown in Europe. It opened Europeans to the possibility that there were new truths to be found.
How did the Age of Exploration help the Scientific Revolution? As scientists began to look more closely at the world around them, they made observations that did not match the ancient beliefs.
What is the Heliocentric Theory? The sun is the center of the universe and everything else surrounds it.
What was the Enlightenment? A new intellectual movement of the 1700s that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems; the application of the scientific method to an understanding of life.
What did Hobbes believe about human nature? What did Hobbes mean by the social contract? People are basically greedy and selfish; society can’t exist without control. Social contrast people give up their freedom in exchange for an orderly society.
What type of government did Hobbes favor and why? An absolute monarchy because society needs strict control to impose order and force obedience.
What did Locke believe were man’s natural rights? Rights that belong to all people at birth: Life, liberty, and property
What did Locke believe was the role of government and what did he think people should do it the government failed to fulfill it’s role? Protect the people's natural rights. If the government doesn’t do that, the people should overthrow it.
What type of government did Locke favor and why? A democracy where the power of the government comes from the consent of the governed.
Who were the philosophes and what were their five core beliefs? 17th century French philosophers.
Reason – truth discovered through reason.
Nature – nature is good
Happiness – on earth, not just hereafter
Progress – Society can improve
Liberties – as in English Bill of Right
Describe the ideas of Voltaire? Criticized church and French government. Believed in tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and freedom of speech.
Describe the ideas of Montesquieu. Best way to protect liberty is a government with three branches – separation of powers so each branch serves as a check (control) to the other branches.
Describe the ideas of Rousseau. His social contract said that each person has to sacrifice some personal freedoms or desires for the good of society as a whole; the only good government is one which is formed by the general will of the people.
Describe the ideas of Beccaria. Laws exist to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes; argued for speedy trials and punishments with fit the crime; no capital punishment or torture.
How did the philosophers of the Enlightenment view woman Did not extend enlightenment ideas to women; Did not support equality or education for women; not accorded the same right as men.
Describe the ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft. Equal education for girls so women could fully participate in public life.
Describe the 1 long-term effect of the Enlightenment on western civilization. Belief in progress – use reason to solve problems of society; greater quality and more democratic style of government.
Write another long-term effect. A more secular outlook – mysteries of the universe could be explained by math and science; did not have to accept only teaching of church.
Another long-term effect was.. Importance of the individual – people should use their own intelligence (reason) to determine right or wrong; government should promote the welfare of its citizens.