Biology Cell parts

January 16, 2018 Off By admin
light microscope allow visible light to pass through a specimen, then through glass lenses, and finally is projected into the viewer's eye
specimens can be magnified up to 1000 times
magnification is the increase in an object's image size compared to its actual size
resolution is a measure of the clarity of the image
electron microscope allows scientists to view ultrastructure of cells; used beam of electrons; magnification up to 100,000 times
Cells must be large enough to house DNA, proteins and other structures needed to survive and reproduce
Cells must be small enough to allow for surface-to-volume ratio that will allow exchange with the environment through the cell membrane
prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea
eukaryotic domain Eukarya
BOTH prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells plasma membrane
cytosol interior filled with jelly-like fluid
ribosome tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes; cellular components that use instructions from the nucleus to build proteins
cytoplasm the inside of both of the cells
nucleoid specific to prokaryotic; DNA coiled into a region; no membrane
cell wall outside the plasma membrane; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
capsule outside the cell wall
fimbriae short projections that help cell attach to other prokaryotic or to substances
flagella singular projection used to move a cell through liquid environment
eukaryotic larger than prokaryotic; membrane enclosed nucleus
organelles perform specific functions in the cell
nucleus contains DNA and controls the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis (control center of the cell)
chromosome DNA is organized into structures
chromatin a complex of proteins and DNA that appears
nucleus envebre double membrane; pores to regulate entry and exit of molecules and collect with the cells endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum the largest part of the endomembrane system made up of an extensive network of flattened sacs and tubules
smooth ER lacks attached ribosomes; production of enzymes to help build lipids, oils, phospholipids and steroids
rough ER bound ribosomes that stud the surface of the membrane; makes additional membrane for itself and secretory proteins
Golgi apparatus serves as a molecular warehouse and processing station for products manufactured by the ER
vesicles travel from the ER to the Golgi apparatus
lysosomes membrane-enclosed sacs of digestive enzymes made by the rough ER that are processed in the Golgi apparatus
vacuoles large vesicles that have a variety of functions; protists use them to eliminate/store water; plants use them for digestive functions, pigments, or contain poisons to protect the plant
peroxisome metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system
mitochondria organelles that carryout cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells; convert chemical energy in foods to chemical energy
chloroplasts in plant cells and are photosynthesizing organelles of plants and algae that convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy
cytoskeleton a network of protein fibers that organize the structures and activities of the cell
plasma membrane forms flexible barrier between cell and its surroundings
cell wall in plant cells and is a rigid layer of polysaccharides that protect the plant cell outside the cell membrane