Bio practical II

February 10, 2018 Off By admin
Question Answer
What is fermentation An anaerobic process that uses pyruvate as an electron transport and produces energy without the need for oxygen.
What is cellular respiration An aerobic process that has three phases. Glycolosis, the kreb cycle and the electron transport chain. takes glucose to pyruvate to Acetyl CoA then oxygen, NADH + FADH2 as well as a proton gradient to produce MAD energy
What is photosynthesis? A process by which plants use light energy to convert carbon dioxide, water, oxygen and glucose into ATP and waste products
What kind of reactions do both fermentation and cellular respiration involve? redox reactions. (both reduction and oxidation reactions)
Whats another name for the Kreb cycle? the citric acid cycle
what processes take place in the mitochondria kreb and etc
What processes take place in the cytosol of a cell fermentation and glycoloysis
whats the initial reactant in both cellular respiration and fermentation GLUCOSE
Which yields more atp, fermentation or cellular respiration C.R
Whats the name for bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Why does bread dough rise with the addition of yeast starch and flour are converted to glucose and fructose which begin fermentation. The resulting CO2 is trapped in the dough yo
What ratio will produce the most CO2? 1 yeast/ 3 glucose or 3 yeast/3 glucose 3 yeast/3 glucose
what were the independent variables in the fermentation experiment? the drops of eyast/ glucose in the test tube
WHat is the dependent variable for fermentation? the CO2 evolved
What tubes were the control in the fermentation experiment tubes 1 and 2. One had no glucose while the other had no yeast
Which test tube had the highest rate of fermentation the one with the equal ratio of yeast and glucose
Why was different amounts of water added to each test tube? to make total mL count equivalent (controlled)
What are the reactants and products of glycolosis reactants: glucose NAD+ ADP & Pi
products: ATP, NADH & pyruvate
What are the reactants and products for alcoholic fermentation reactants: glucose + yeast
products: Ethanol + CoA
WHat are the products and reactants in citric acid/ Kreb cycle? reactants: PYRUVATES, h+, NAD=, FAD, ADP +Pi
products: ATP FADH2, CO2, NADH
What are the reactants/ products of the electron transport chain reactants: NADH + FADH2
products: ATP, h+, NAD+, and H2O
Two characteristics of natural wines are that they have a max alcohol concentration of 14% and are sparkling. why? Yeast dies at a higher concentration and the sparkling is due to the release of CO2
Why doesn't bread contain alcohol like beer or wine? the alcohol gets "baked" out
If you wanted to take corn (stores energy as starch) to utilize it for industrial energy how could you do so? Introduce Amylase (an enzyme that breaks starch down into glucose) and then proceed to glycolysis and fermentation
If you slam an oven door while bread is baking inside the bread will collapse- why? the air pockets created by the yeast will burst
When does lactic acid fermentation occur in animals? when not enough oxygen is being transported to the cells to produce energy. (muscle cells will perform fermentation w/o O2 and that causes the burning sensation during an intense workout)
What type of fermentation makes cheese? Lactic acid fermentation. that combined w/ principal acid producers and microflora
What is the result of soaking vegetables in a salt brine? lactic acid fermentation- vinegar esque. Doesn't allow more bacteria to grow and kills bacteria already there
What is an enzyme? biological catalysts. speed up chemical reactions w/o being affected in process. Reacts w/ SUBSTRATE to create a PRODUCT
What is the active site of an enzyme? the part where the substrate and enzyme binds. b/c enzymes are unique to substrate the active site is like a puzzle piece formatted for the substrate.
Enzyme substrate complex the active site successfully combined enzyme & substrate. when rxn is complete the complex disassociates w/ enzyme or becomes part of product
How can enzymes speed up the rate of reactions they limit the amount of energy of activation needed to start reaction
What is denaturation the loss of function of an enzyme
What is catalase an enzyme found in animal cells responsible for catalyzing breakdown of toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into harmless molecules (H2O & O2)
What is the independant variable in the potato enzyme exp. The number of potato cubes
What is the dependent variable in the potato enzyme exp. the relative rate of bubble formation
Whats the relationship between enzyme and subsrtate in the enzyme expirement. (potato and catalase) the enzyme will catalyze reactions until it reaches a maximum peak, then plateau
Whats the independent variable in the pH enzyme experiment? pH
whats the dependent variable in the pH enzyme experiment the relative rate of bubbles produced
What happens when an enzyme is exposed to a non optimal pH? DENATURATION
What happens to chemical reactions as temperature increases? the rate of the reactions also increase. (speeds up motion of molecules)
WHat can happen to an enzyme if the temperature is raised too high? denaturation
Whats the optimal temperature for catalase? 37 C, body temperature
What does decreased heat do to an enzyme? slows things down. potentially to an undetectable level but does not denature. can be reheated to optimal functioning temp
Why is the pH in the stomach so low helps to kill bacteria and denature proteins for digestion
What do antacids do? they increase the pH of your stomach acids to make it more basic however too much will prevent you from adequately digesting
What is a gamete reproductive cells (haploids) eggs and sperm
What are somatic cells divide for growth or replacement. regular body cells.
What is mitosis the process of cellular reproduction for unicellular organisms and body cells. duplication. creates copies of DNA and everything divides. Asexual reproduction
WHat is meiosis the process of cellular reproduction for gametes. cells divide twice but chromosomes replicate once. Sexual reproduction
Why doesn't meiosis create duplicate cells? independent assortment and crossing over
What is cytokinesis When the entire cell splits in two following telophase
What are the two main phases of the cell cycle? interphase (90%) and the mitotic phase
Interphase (G1, S, G2) dark staining bodies, nucleoli, are present. the chromosome mass is visible, have been replicated)
Prophase chromosomes condense, distinguishable strands. spindle begins to form
prometaphase chromosomes are thick and short, chromosomes are duplicated. nuclear membrane and nucleoili are broken down
metaphase centromeres line at equator of cell. Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores
anaphase centromeres split, begin to draw apart
telophase/cytokinesis chromosomes reached the poles, cell begins to divide
diploid cell cells with two pairs of each homologous chromosomes
Haploid cell cells with only one pair of each homologous chromosomes
homologous chromosomes same length, same genes, and have the same centromere posistion
What unique events occur in prophase 1 of meiosis crossing over and synapsis. crossing over creates chiasma (X) synapsis creates tetrads
what is synapsis when each cromosome finds its homologous pair
metaphase 1 chromosomes move to metaphase plate and have independent assortment
anaphase 1 duplicated chromosomes move away from homologue
telophase 1 cells are diploid. now 2 of them
Whats the interphase between mieosis 1 & 2 very short, little cell growth, no dna duplication
After meiosis II how many cells will there be 4 haploid cells
What would happen with continual reproduction without reduced the number of chromosomes in meiosis continually double in count unless the duplication process was eliminated as well
What differs between plant cells and animal cells in reproduction. The cel wall grows rather than divides. the cell wall in plant cells is much more rigid than in animal cells.
What type of bond joins nucleotides together covalent bonds
WHat base is in DNA thats not in RNA thymine
In the DNA lab (extracting chromosomes from a strawberry) what did mashing the strawberry do? destroyed the cell's structure
In the DNA lab (extracting chromosomes from a strawberry) what does the detergent in the buffer solution do? releases bonds and breaks nuclear envelope
What does Bromothymol Blue do? turns yellow in the presence of acidity
What fruits and vegetables are good sources for DNA kiwis, onions and bananas
In the DNA lab (extracting chromosomes from a strawberry) what did the ice cold ethanol do? preserved the peptide bonds
In the DNA lab (extracting chromosomes from a strawberry) what did swirling the mixture do? extract/collect the DNA
Describe what you can see of DNA with the naked eye? you can not see individual nucleotides however when in strands you can see them
What enzyme catalyzes pigmentation in siamese cats and himilayan rabbits thermolabile