Anthro test 2 Making a living/ political system

February 14, 2018 Off By admin
Term Definition
Subsistence Refers to how people get the food they need to survive
Forager Schedules their movement moves, where food becomes available, nature produces whatever.
Collectors Figured out how to store surplus, don't move as much.
Food producing societies Grow food, labor matters, and farmers
Pastoralism Direct dependence upon herds of animals
Horitculture Slash and Burn, More basic than agriculture, growing your own.
Agriculture More advance, no moving. Like machines and labor
Niche The unique lifestyle of an organism in it's environment
Generalized vs. Specialized more broad foragers vs. narrow food producers
Carrying Capacity how many people you can support
Amenorhia (concept) An imbalance in the critical fat ratio required to ovulate
Three factors affect low ratio High quantity of protein in a diet compared to carbohydrates, high mobility rate which burns excess calories, and long wearing period.
Cultural Ecology The study of the interaction of specific human cultures with their environment.
cultural core the features of a culture, especially technology, that plays a part in matters relating to making a living.
Cultural Area A geographic region in which a number different societies follow similar patterns of life
A Division by Sex Increases chances of learning necessary skills of culture.
A Division by Age Allows time for the young skills to be developed.
General Reciprocity Neither the value of the gift is calculated nor the time of repayment specified
Balanced Reciprocity the value and time of repayment are more specifically considered than in generalized reciprocity
Negative Reciprocity Taking with the thought of a fair return out to get something for nothing or less than it is worth
Kula Ring Exchange is based upon the ceremonial exchange of valued shell ornaments
Redistribution Exchanged of goods
Market or commercial exchange The buying and selling of goods and services
General types of societies Bands, Chiefdoms, Tribes, States
Chiefdoms These societies ensure conformity with religion, public display, movements, symbols, and coercive use of force.
Nuclear family Father, mother, and children
Extended family Domestic group of siblings, their children, the parents, and grandparents
Household The residential unit where consumption, econ production, shelter, children nearly, etc. all relate men, sisters, and sisters kids.
Descent The wars we trade kinship the way we trace it doesn't have to be real, they can be pressured.
Unlineal descent Establishes descent group membership exclusively through the male or female lines.
Parallel vs. cross cousins first cousin who is paternal uncle's child or maternal aunt's child, while a cross cousin is maternal uncle's child or paternal aunt's child
Ambilineal descent Ego traces through both males and females, but not equally and not simultaneously
Lineage A corporate descent group that traces genealogical links to a common ancestor
Clan A non corporate descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor without actually knowing the genealogical links to that ancestor.
Example of clan? Moiety, ohratry, clan, and lineage
Kinship Terminology The network of culturally recognized
interpersonal relations through which
individuals are related to one another by ties of
descent or marriage.
The Eskimo system emphasizes the nuclear family. Ego’s father
and mother are distinguished from ego’s aunts and uncles, and
siblings from cousins
Hawaiian system All relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term.
Sex Biologically defined( females xx and males xy)
Gender Culturally defined roles or identities
In western culture it's preferred to have same sex marriage
Trans changing your gender given at birth
Gender Stratification Many patrilineal cultures promote dominance of men over women.
Marriage Marriage rules are critical to defining a cultures concept of domestic life. its almost universal.
Monogamy Marriage with one spouse exclusively and for life
Serial Monogamy Marriage with one spouse at a time
Polygamy Marriage with more than one wife at a time
Polyandry Marriage with more than one husband at a time
Exogamy Requires an individual to marry out of a certain group
Endogamy Must marry within your group
The incest Taboo Parents, siblings. Except= among royalty
Levirate Favors the remarriage of a widow to her deceased husband brother
Sororate Custom of a deceased wife being replaced by her sister
Cousin marriage both cross and parallel
Dowry Payment of a woman’s inheritance at the time
of her marriage, either to her or her husband.
Bride Price Compensation the groom or his family pays to the bride’s family
on marriage.
Bride Service A designated period after marriage when the groom works for the bride’s family.
Globalization The accelerating interdependence of nations and peoples in a world system linked economically through mass media and modern transportation systems
World Systems The capitalist world economy committed to maximizing profits
Socio- economic Stratification Social classes are based on access to resources. These classes include people who own/ control the societies mean of production US. those who don't.
Colonialism domination of a region and its people by a foreign power over an extended time by settling a large number of people from the dominant country in the region.
Imperialism a policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign
regions/nations.
Industrialization the development of industries in a country or region on a wide scale.
Diffusion the spreading of something more widely
Acculturation Acquiring someone's culture.
Modernization refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies.
Development a focus on the social and cultural dimension of modernization.
two main approaches to development projects Top down and grass roots
Top down stresses short term solutions to complex problems, often for
political reasons Ex.The Green Revolution

Grass Roots stresses a holistic perspective, empowering local communities
Migration Study of how people move
Refugees Forced to move